Measurements of reference are in the form of either z scores (standard deviation), or the percentage of the median.The percentage of the median, as defined by the WHO, is “the ratio of a measured value in the individual, for instance weight, to the median value of the reference data for the same age or height, expressed as a percentage.” In the context of a nutrition program, the weight, height, and age of each child is recorded at admission.Moderate malnutrition in children is defined as less than 80% (70%-79%) but greater than or equal to 70% weight-for-height body size or less than −2 SD but greater than or equal to −3 SD on a weight-for-height growth chart.
Children can also be classified as having severe chronic malnutrition (stunting) when they have less than 70% height-for-age body size or less than −3 SD on a height-for-age growth chart.
The most vulnerable children are those aged 6 months to 5 years.
The admitting medical staff member uses a table of either weight and height, weight for age, or height for age, indicating the cut-off values for the percentage of the median or the z score.
The child's measurements are then classified as a certain category (ie, moderately or severely malnourished or not malnourished) and thus determine whether the child meets the admission criteria for a particular program.
Author Affiliations: Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland (Ms Dale and Dr Miettola); Epicentre (Ms Grais), and Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France (Dr Minetti); and Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland and the Unit of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain (Dr Barengo).
To compare the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) international growth reference with the new World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards for identification of the malnourished (wasted) children most at risk of death.
The companion website includes all sample codes used to generate the visualizations in the book, data sets, and links to the libraries and other resources covered.
Let Java Script and j Query for Data Analysis and Visualization be the resource that guides you through the myriad strategies and solutions for combining analysis and visualization with stunning results.
Epi Nut (Epi Info 6.0; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia) software was used to calculate the percentage of the median for the NCHS reference group, and the WHO (igrowup macro; Geneva, Switzerland) software was used to calculate z scores for the WHO standards group of the 53 661 wasted children.