Breeding experiments indicate that differentiation in mating system occurs among populations from Hokkaido, Japan. First, are there significant differences in allocation at each of the three levels of the hierarchy between SC and SI populations?Some populations are self-compatible (SC) and plants have a high selfing ability, whereas the remaining populations are self-incompatible (SI) and plants produce seeds by obligatory outcrossing (Fig. In this study, we compared the dry matter allocation of plants from 13 populations by assuming that resources were invested in floral traits according to the three-level hierarchical resource allocation as described above (Fig. Second, how do the three levels of the hierarchy contribute to the differences in size of attractive structures (i.e., petals)?
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Flowers of selfing plants generally have smaller attractive structures than those of outcrossers.
Plants may allocate resources between reproductive (i.e., flowers) and vegetative (e.g., leaves and stems) functions, then subdivide reproductive resources among flowers, and further subdivide resources among floral structures within each flower (Fig. In this respect, previous sex-allocation models have mostly ignored hierarchical natures of resource allocation and empirical testing of the prediction has only examined allocation at the end of the hierarchy, even though absolute amount of resources invested in floral traits is also influenced by allocation at the early levels.
It is well known that resource investment per flower often decreases with increasing selfing (Ornduff, 1969). Three-level allocation hierarchy assumed in this study.
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First, it is possible that allocation of total resources to reproduction at flowering decreases as the selfing rate increases.
With higher selfing, as theory predicts, plants generally invest more resources in female function such as ovules and seeds (Brunet, 1992), the increased allocation to female function may require more resources at fruiting, rather than at flowering, to mature many seeds.
Although flower number (and investment per flower) was also set to be subject to selection in the model, he concentrated on the relationship between selfing rate and resource investment to attractive structures rather than on that between selfing rate and flower number.
In Sakai's model, however, the general relationship between selfing rate and investment to attractive structures was obtained only if there are nonlinear constraints on flower number and investment per flower.
In general, selfing populations had smaller petals than outcrossing populations, and multiple levels in the hierarchy were essential to explain these differences in petal size.